Suwonhwaseong means "Hwaseong Fortress" in Korea, Suwon-si. Hwaseong Fortress was constructed as an act of filial devotion by Jeongjo, the 22nd king of the Joseon Dynasty (1392~1910), and to strengthen his power, eradicate party conflict, and fortify the southern area of the capital. Construction was started along Mt. Paldalsan in January 1794 and completed in September 1796 under the supervision of Chae Jae-gong, a former minister and the magistrate of Yeongjungchubu County. During construction, equipment such as the Geojunggi, a type of traditional Korean crane, and potters’ wheels were developed and used to transport and assemble large stones.
The fortress suffered partial damage during Japanese colonial
rule and the Korean War, but most of its original features have
been restored with the help of the Hwaseong Seongyeokuigwe, the
construction archive published in 1801 after the fortress was
completed. The fortress sprawls over both flat and hilly terrain,
something seldom seen in neighboring China and Japan. It is
designed to serve political and commercial as well as military
functions and is a fine example of oriental fortresses.